# Java 8 Optional Cheatsheet

### 1. I have an A a, how can I get an Optional<A> containing a?

Optional.of(a)    // a cannot be null


### 2. I have an A aOrNull which can be null, how can I get an Optional<A>?

Optional.ofNullable(aOrNull)


This is extremely useful to convert the traditional nullable reference to an Optional object.

### 3. How can I get an empty Optional<A>?

Optional.empty()


### 4. How can I know if an Optional<A> maybeA contains any object?

maybeA.isPresent()    // Returns true if it is not empty


This method should be rarely used. If you find you use it frequently, see if you use if statements too much (or the notorious ?: operator). Take a look at Item 6 and Item 7 for a better approach.

### 5. I have an Optional<A> maybeA, how can I get the instance in it?

You have four ways to get it:

maybeA.get()    // Throws NoSuchElementException if empty

maybeA.orElse(anotherObject)    // Returns anotherObject if empty

maybeA.orElseGet(() -> makeAnotherObject())  // Call the function if empty

maybeA.orElseThrow(() -> throw new MyException())   // Throw if empty


You usually only need to use them on the boundary of your method.

### 6. I have an Optional<A> maybeA and a function B process(A a), how can I get an Optional<B>?

maybeA.map(a -> process(a))


It means if maybeA is empty, return an empty Optional<B>. Otherwise, return an Optional<B> containing process(a).

Use Optional.map to replace these if statements:

// Bad, because we cannot use the final modifier!
Optional<B> maybeB = Optional.empty();

if (maybeA.isPresent()) {
A a = maybeA.get();
B b = process(a);
maybeB = Optional.of(b);
}

// Good
final Optional<B> maybeB = maybeA.map(a -> process(a));


### 7. I have an Optional<A> maybeA and a function Optional<B> process(A a), how can I get an Optional<B>?

maybeA.flatMap(a -> process(a))


It means if maybeA is empty, return an empty Optional<B>. Otherwise, return process(a).

Use Optional.flatMap to replace these if statements:

// Bad, because we cannot use the final modifier!
Optional<B> maybeB = Optional.empty();

if (maybeA.isPresent()) {
A a = maybeA.get();
maybeB = process(a);
}

// Good
final Optional<B> maybeB = maybeA.flatMap(a -> process(a));


### 8. I have Optional<A> maybeA and Optional<B> maybeB and a function C process(A a, B b), how can I get an Optional<C>?

maybeA.flatMap(a ->
maybeB.map(b ->
process(a, b)))


What if the function has three arguments? Easy.

maybeA.flatMap(a ->
maybeB.flatMap(b ->
maybeC.map(c ->
process(a, b, c))))


If you have a Haskell background, you must have figured out that I’m just reinventing the do notation in Java.